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Note: As told to Veronica Ryan (rsj).
Issue Details: First known date: 2001... 2001 From Digging Sticks to Writing Sticks : Stories of Kija Women As Told to Veronica Ryan
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AbstractHistoryArchive Description

The stories recorded in this book trace the oral history of the families of Warmun community dating back to the time of first contact and interaction with foreigners. Elders speak of that time by describing life on cattle stations and the way culture was maintained in an increasingly alien environment. Other contributors tell of the move to the present community site and explain how aspects of their culture are still maintained and transmitted by the people of Warmun community.


  • Copyright of text remains with Veronica Ryan, 2001.
  • Copyright for each story remains with the original storytellers or their nominee, 2001.
  • Key storytellers have been listed while other community members have also shared their wisdom and experiences.
  • Dedication: The women of Warmun Community dedicate these stories to the students of Ngalanganpum School.
  • Compiler's note: Most of the accounts were originally told in Aboriginal English, or in Kija. Much of the text has been modified, but in order to give a flavour of the original form, some of the original language has been retained. Eileen Bray, with support from Mary Thomas, has advised on the appropriate use of language for the written recording of particular stories. Story is not merely a passing on of information about earlier events; it is much more. What has become clear is that traditional Aboriginal storytellers, like the women of Warmun, continually use artistry of language combined with an unshakeable belief in the wisdom of their message.

Publication Details of Only Known VersionEarliest 2 Known Versions of

Language: English , Aboriginal Kija AIATSIS ref. (K20) (WA SE 52-06)
Last amended 24 May 2017 16:20:45