y Highways to a War single work   novel  
Is part of Beware of the Past Christopher Koch 1995 series - author novel
Issue Details: First known date: 1995 1995
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Notes

  • Companion novel to Out of Ireland. In the author note to the 1999 edition of Highways to a War, Koch describes the two novels as a dyptich entitled Beware of the Past, the first line of a poem by James McAuley used as an epigraph to the later novel.
  • Study guides available.
  • Dedication: For Cynthia Blanche, who believed in it./ For Carl and Kim Robinson and James Gerrand, who took me to the War./ And in memory of my friend Bill Pinwill, who did not go gentle into that good night.
  • Epigraph: Beware of the past;/ Within it lie/ Dark haunted pools/ That lure the eye/ To drown in grief or madness./ Things that are gone,/ Or never were,/ The adversary/ Weaves to a snare,/ The mystery of sadness. ('Warning' by James McAuley)
  • Other formats: Also sound recording.

Publication Details of Only Known VersionEarliest 2 Known Versions of

    • New York (City), New York (State),
      c
      United States of America (USA),
      c
      Americas,
      :
      Viking , 1995 .
      Extent: 469p.
      ISBN: 0670861553 (alk. paper), 0855616423
    • Port Melbourne, South Melbourne - Port Melbourne area, Melbourne - Inner South, Melbourne, Victoria,: Heinemann Australia , 1995 .
      Extent: ix,450p.p.
      Written as: Christopher J. Koch.
      ISBN: 0855616423
    • London,
      c
      England,
      c
      c
      United Kingdom (UK),
      c
      Western Europe, Europe,
      :
      Heinemann , 1995 .
      Extent: 450p.
      ISBN: 0434001996
    • Port Melbourne, South Melbourne - Port Melbourne area, Melbourne - Inner South, Melbourne, Victoria,: Minerva , 1996 .
      Extent: 450p.
      ISBN: 1863305246 (pbk)
    • New York (City), New York (State),
      c
      United States of America (USA),
      c
      Americas,
      :
      Penguin , 1996 .
      Extent: xv, 469 p.p.
      ISBN: 0140247572 (pbk.)
    • Milsons Point, North Sydney - Lane Cove area, Sydney Northern Suburbs, Sydney, New South Wales,: London,
      c
      England,
      c
      c
      United Kingdom (UK),
      c
      Western Europe, Europe,
      :
      Vintage , 1999 .
      Extent: 450p.
      Reprinted: 2003
      Note/s:
      • On title page: Volume One of Beware of the Past.
      ISBN: 1863305246
Alternative title: Das Verschwinden des Michael Langford : Roman
Language: German
    • Frankfurt am Main,
      c
      Germany,
      c
      Western Europe, Europe,
      :
      S. Fischer , 1997 .
      Extent: 525p.
      Reprinted: 1999
      ISBN: 3100402138

Works about this Work

A Century of Oz Lit in China : A Critical Overview (1906-2008) Yu Ouyang , 2011 single work criticism
— Appears in: Antipodes , June vol. 25 no. 1 2011; (p. 65-71)
‘This paper seeks to examine the dissemination, reception and perception of Australian literature in China from 1906 to 2008 by providng a historical background for its first arrival in China as a literature undistinguished from English or American literature, then as part of a ruoxiao minzu wenxue (weak and small nation literature) in the early 1930s, its rise as interest grew in Communist and proletarian writings in the 1950s and 1960s, and its spread and growth from the end of the cultural revolution in 1976 across all genres, culminating in its present unprecedented flourishing.’ (Introduction, p. 65)
Elvis Down Under : Simulations of a US Pop Icon in Australian Fiction Paul Genoni , 2010 single work criticism
— Appears in: Reading Across the Pacific : Australia-United States Intellectual Histories 2010; (p. 177-193)
'This paper will examine a selection of Australian fiction which features Elvis Presley, or a Presley manqué, as a character. This will include novels and short fiction by Debra Adelaide (A Household Guide to Dying), Julie Capaldo (Weather), Nick Cave (And the Ass Saw the Angel), Gail Jones ('Heartbreak Hotel') and Dorian Mode (A Cafe in Venice). The paper will investigate the capacity of a ubiquitous pop icon such as Presley to absorb and reflect socio-cultural meanings that transcend national boundaries while at the same time affirming elements of national character. In doing so it will consider the meaning and function of trans-national celebrity in a globalised world, and explore why it is that Australian authors—and readers—find a resonance in the figure of Elvis Presley that is seemingly missing from the pop-iconography of their own country.' (Author's abstract)
Christopher Koch : Drawn to Comics Elaine Minor , 2009 single work criticism
— Appears in: JASAL , Special Issue 2009;
In debates about appreciation and interpretation of Literature, Christopher Koch is an outspoken, and often controversial, figure. He deplores what he terms the postmodern approach to critical analysis, questioning why children are 'studying films, comic strips and hopelessly bad contemporary novels with social messages, rather than major works that have stood the test of time'. It is somewhat surprising then, to study Koch's novels and uncover how frequently his work is informed by childhood influences and his love of comic books. This essay considers whether unwittingly Koch, as an author, is an instrument of social forces.
Memory, Imagination, and Identity in Secret Intelligence : Christopher Koch's The Memory Room Bruce Bennett , 2009 single work criticism
— Appears in: Antipodes , December vol. 23 no. 2 2009; (p. 109-113)
'Sometimes a novel emerges in a culture that touches the nerve of its times even though it is set a generation or so earlier. Dickens's Bleak House is a novel of this kind. The institutions of law remain forever colored by Dickens's satiric observations in this novel. Christopher Koch is not a satirist, but his novel Highways to a War (1995) remains the most memorable of the spate of novels that explored Australia's military involvement in the wars in Vietnam and Cambodia in the 1960s and 70s. Koch's latest novel, The Memory Room (2007), set in China and Australia in the early 1980s, has a similar impact and again recalls events some twenty-five years earlier, with a focus on the profession of secret intelligence.' (p. 109)
Christopher Koch : Crossing Sea Walls Chad Habel , 2009 single work criticism
— Appears in: Something Rich and Strange : Sea Changes, Beaches and the Littoral in the Antipodes 2009; (p. 224-231)
Discusses some of Koch's novels with focus on the notion of crossing boundaries and entering new spaces, where transformation of identities is possible. Using sea travel and the sea wall as a boundary which serves to prevent a crossing, the novels focus on liminal spaces, but the transformative potential of such liminal spaces is rarely fulfilled. The notion of 'crossing over' 'serves to help understand Koch's fiction as a unified body of work' (231), representing a coherent vision despite shifts in focus and emphasis.
y Ancestral Narratives: Irish-Australian Identities in History and Fiction Chad Habel , Saarbrucken : VDM Verlag , 2008-2009 Z1664583 2008-2009 single work criticism
y Water from the Moon : Illusion and Reality in the Works of Australian Novelist Christopher Koch Jean-François Vernay , Youngstown : Cambria Press , 2007 Z1337091 2007 single work criticism

'Author of six novels, Christopher John Koch (born in 1932) is one of Australia’s leading novelists who enjoys worldwide recognition. Koch’s writing has its finger on the pulse of today’s changing society. Not only does his work fall within a universal stream but it also stands out as a production of its own, built like a puzzle with distinct pieces. Through fiction, Koch explores other genres – the fairy tale, drama, poetry – to the point of producing multi-faceted works which challenge classification. In spite of the constant renewal of his settings for action, one notices the presence of a main thread which runs through Koch’s fiction: the antipodean and ambiguous relationship between illusion and reality.

'This theoretically informed monograph provides a book-by-book analysis of the novelist’s œuvre and gives a full picture of his Weltanschauung. It is valuable reference for scholars in Australian Studies, as well as those researching postcolonial, psychoanalytic and literary theories.

'This book is winner of the Excellence Award 2009 by the THESE-PAC jury (le prix THESE-PAC, Prix Jean-Pierre Piérard) in the South Pacific-Australasia category.'

(Publication summary)

A Wilderness of Mirrors: Perspectives on 'the Spying Game' in Australian Literature Bruce Bennett , 2007-2008 single work criticism
— Appears in: Zeitschrift fur Australienstudien , no. 21-22 2007-2008; (p. 10-21)
'The principal focus of this paper is on four novels by Australians published from the 1990s which engage significantly with 'the spying game': Ric Throssells' In a Wilderness of Mirrors (1992), Frank Moorhouse's Grand Days (1993), Christopher Koch's Highways to a War (1996) and Janette Turner Hosptial's Due Preparations for the Plague (2003). Each of these novels throws light ... on the profession of espionage and its impact on individuals. A picture emerges of mobile, trans-national individiuals engaged in clandestine activity which tests their intelligence, commitment and conscience and brings into question the causes they support.' (p.10)
Christopher Koch, Out of Ireland : No More 'Hiding the Stain' Chad Habel , 2001 single work criticism
— Appears in: Australian Literary Studies in the 21st Century 2001; (p. [128]-134)
Habel discusses the significance of ancestry for Koch's characters with focus on Langford in Highways to War and Devereaux in Out of Ireland.
On the Tides of History : Christopher Koch's Diptych Noel Henricksen , 2001 single work criticism
— Appears in: Quadrant , April vol. 45 no. 4 2001; (p. 53-58)
An Interview with Christopher Koch Sophie Masson (interviewer), 2000 single work biography interview
— Appears in: Ulitarra , January no. 16 2000; (p. 92-98) Quadrant , March vol. 44 no. 3 2000; (p. 72-73)
Your Worst Nightmare: Hybridised Demonology in Asian-Australian Women's Writing Shirley Tucker , 2000 single work criticism
— Appears in: Journal of Australian Studies , no. 65 2000; (p. 150-157)
This essay examines historical and contemporary fictional representations of Asian women and locates their 'unheimlich' counterparts in alternative portraits of, and by, Asian-Australian women writers.
Heroic Inventions : Christopher J. Koch's Highways to a War and Australian Fiction Adrian Mitchell , 2000 single work criticism
— Appears in: New Directions in Australian Studies : Papers of the Inaugural Conference of The Asian Association for the Study of Australia (ASAA), "Creative Configurations", Kerala, India (1997) 2000; (p. 353-365)
y Australian Reflections in a Mirror Clouded by Dust : The Search for Self, Soul and the 'Other' in the Asian Novels of Blanche d'Alpuget and Christopher J. Koch David S. La Breche , 2000 Z964101 2000 single work thesis

Since the end of the British Empire, which had provided white Australians with points of view, attitudes and stereotypes of the world - including perceptions of their own role in it, rediscovering an international identity has been an Australian quest. Many turned to European roots; others to the Aboriginal landscape; Blanche d'Alpuget and Christopher J. Koch are two who have ventured into Asia for the culturally and spiritually regenerative materials necessary to redefine Australia in the post-colonial world. They have taken Eastern concepts of 'self', and 'soul' and forged them with the Australian obsession of fear and desire of contact with the 'other' in a looking-glass of hybrid, Austral-Asian myth to reveal the true soul of Australian identity.

Along with a brief historical and literary background to the triangular relationship between white Australia, Asia, and the West, this study's goal is to identify some of the Southeast Asian symbols, myths and literary structures which Koch and d'Alpuget integrate into the Western tradition. Central elements include: dichotomies as of personality, righteousness, and virtue; the 'Otherworld', where one may approach enlightenment, but at the risk of falling into self-delusion; archetypes of the Hindu divine feminine; Eastern roots of Koch's themes of the 'double man'; concepts of the forces of 'light' and 'dark'; the semiotics of time and meaning; and the central Eastern metaphor of the mirror by which Australia creates interdependent images of itself and of Asia.

Intertextual relationships include: Carroll's Alice in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass; Orwell's 1984; Irving's 'Rip Van Winkle'; significant sacred works as The Gospels, the Mahabharata, the Ramayana, and the Bhagavad Gita; the Javanese Shadow Theatre, the Wayang Kulit; and the Hindu hagiographic tradition. (Abstract by the author)

Irish Cultural Memory in Australian Writing since World War II Kathleen Simmons , 2000 single work criticism
— Appears in: Irish-Australian Studies : Papers Delivered at the Ninth Irish-Australian Conference, Galway, April 1997 2000; (p. 224-232)
y A Student's Guide to Highways to a War by Christopher J. Koch Emma Burrell , Paul Callaghan , Ballarat : Wizard Books , 1999 Z1612214 1999 single work criticism
Living Constantly with the Past Bron Sibree , 1999 single work biography
— Appears in: The Canberra Times Sunday Times , 21 March 1999; (p. 18)
y The Year of Living Dangerously and Highways to a War Barry Spurr , Glebe : Pascal Press , 1999 Z425862 1999 single work criticism
Swept So Far Away Frank Devine , 1999 single work review
— Appears in: The Weekend Australian , 2-3 October 1999; (p. 14)

— Review of Out of Ireland Christopher Koch 1999 single work novel ; Highways to a War Christopher Koch 1995 single work novel
Christopher Koch's Otherland Noel Henricksen , 1997 single work criticism
— Appears in: Quadrant , April vol. 41 no. 4 1997; (p. 62-65)
Swept So Far Away Frank Devine , 1999 single work review
— Appears in: The Weekend Australian , 2-3 October 1999; (p. 14)

— Review of Out of Ireland Christopher Koch 1999 single work novel ; Highways to a War Christopher Koch 1995 single work novel
Some Local Dantes Judith Armstrong , 1997 single work review
— Appears in: Overland , Winter no. 147 1997; (p. 83-85)

— Review of The Conversations at Curlow Creek David Malouf 1996 single work novel ; Highways to a War Christopher Koch 1995 single work novel ; Keep It Simple, Stupid Peter Goldsworthy 1996 single work novel ; The Island in the Mind Rodney Hall 1996 selected work novel ; The Drowner Robert Drewe 1996 single work novel ; Oyster Janette Turner Hospital 1996 single work novel
Innocence Betrayed in Killing Fields Megan Gressor , 1995 single work review
— Appears in: The Sydney Morning Herald , 1 July 1995; (p. 10A)

— Review of Highways to a War Christopher Koch 1995 single work novel
Highway to an Asian Hell A. P. Riemer , 1995 single work review
— Appears in: The Independent Monthly , July vol. 7 no. 1 1995; (p. 102)

— Review of Highways to a War Christopher Koch 1995 single work novel
Pictures of War John Hanrahan , 1995 single work review
— Appears in: The Age , 8 July 1995; (p. 8)

— Review of Highways to a War Christopher Koch 1995 single work novel
Knight-Errant's Asian Crusade Peter Pierce , 1995 single work review
— Appears in: The Bulletin , 18 July vol. 116 no. 5979 1995; (p. 91)

— Review of Highways to a War Christopher Koch 1995 single work novel
A Burning Picture of a Journey Through Conflict Guy Parsons , 1995 single work review
— Appears in: The Mercury , 24 July 1995; (p. 22)

— Review of Highways to a War Christopher Koch 1995 single work novel
The War Between Fact and Fiction Neil Jillett , 1995 single work review
— Appears in: The Sunday Age , 23 July 1995; (p. 9)

— Review of Highways to a War Christopher Koch 1995 single work novel
Aramis with a Camera? Rosemary Sorensen , 1995 single work review
— Appears in: The Courier-Mail , 29 July 1995; (p. wkd 6)

— Review of Highways to a War Christopher Koch 1995 single work novel
Putting Together the Pieces of a Mythical Aussie Maurice Dunlevy , 1995 single work review
— Appears in: The Canberra Times , 29 July 1995; (p. C13)

— Review of Highways to a War Christopher Koch 1995 single work novel
Untitled David Haward Bain , 1995 single work review
— Appears in: The New York Times Book Review , 6 August 1995; (p. 20)

— Review of Highways to a War Christopher Koch 1995 single work novel
A Legendary War Robin Gerster , 1995 single work review
— Appears in: Australian Book Review , August no. 173 1995; (p. 6-7)

— Review of Highways to a War Christopher Koch 1995 single work novel
Engulfed by Asia Katharine England , 1995 single work review
— Appears in: The Advertiser , 16 September 1995; (p. 9)

— Review of Highways to a War Christopher Koch 1995 single work novel
Trails and Tribulations Nicholas Hasluck , 1995 single work review
— Appears in: Quadrant , November vol. 39 no. 11 1995; (p. 77-78)

— Review of Highways to a War Christopher Koch 1995 single work novel
When Asia and Australia Meet Nicholas Birns , 1995 single work review
— Appears in: Antipodes , December vol. 9 no. 2 1995; (p. 143)

— Review of Highways to a War Christopher Koch 1995 single work novel
The Missing, the Mourned Jennifer Moran , 1997 single work review
— Appears in: The Canberra Times , 9 August 1997; (p. C10)

— Review of Highways to a War Christopher Koch 1995 single work novel ; The Grass Sister Gillian Mears 1995 single work novel
Review David Matthews , 1995 single work review
— Appears in: The Weekend Australian , 15-16 July 1995; (p. rev 7)

— Review of Highways to a War Christopher Koch 1995 single work novel
Christopher Koch, Out of Ireland : No More 'Hiding the Stain' Chad Habel , 2001 single work criticism
— Appears in: Australian Literary Studies in the 21st Century 2001; (p. [128]-134)
Habel discusses the significance of ancestry for Koch's characters with focus on Langford in Highways to War and Devereaux in Out of Ireland.
'Antipodes' Interviews Christopher J. Koch 1995 single work criticism biography interview
— Appears in: Antipodes , December vol. 9 no. 2 1995; (p. 144-145)
y Water from the Moon : Illusion and Reality in the Works of Australian Novelist Christopher Koch Jean-François Vernay , Youngstown : Cambria Press , 2007 Z1337091 2007 single work criticism

'Author of six novels, Christopher John Koch (born in 1932) is one of Australia’s leading novelists who enjoys worldwide recognition. Koch’s writing has its finger on the pulse of today’s changing society. Not only does his work fall within a universal stream but it also stands out as a production of its own, built like a puzzle with distinct pieces. Through fiction, Koch explores other genres – the fairy tale, drama, poetry – to the point of producing multi-faceted works which challenge classification. In spite of the constant renewal of his settings for action, one notices the presence of a main thread which runs through Koch’s fiction: the antipodean and ambiguous relationship between illusion and reality.

'This theoretically informed monograph provides a book-by-book analysis of the novelist’s œuvre and gives a full picture of his Weltanschauung. It is valuable reference for scholars in Australian Studies, as well as those researching postcolonial, psychoanalytic and literary theories.

'This book is winner of the Excellence Award 2009 by the THESE-PAC jury (le prix THESE-PAC, Prix Jean-Pierre Piérard) in the South Pacific-Australasia category.'

(Publication summary)

A Wilderness of Mirrors: Perspectives on 'the Spying Game' in Australian Literature Bruce Bennett , 2007-2008 single work criticism
— Appears in: Zeitschrift fur Australienstudien , no. 21-22 2007-2008; (p. 10-21)
'The principal focus of this paper is on four novels by Australians published from the 1990s which engage significantly with 'the spying game': Ric Throssells' In a Wilderness of Mirrors (1992), Frank Moorhouse's Grand Days (1993), Christopher Koch's Highways to a War (1996) and Janette Turner Hosptial's Due Preparations for the Plague (2003). Each of these novels throws light ... on the profession of espionage and its impact on individuals. A picture emerges of mobile, trans-national individiuals engaged in clandestine activity which tests their intelligence, commitment and conscience and brings into question the causes they support.' (p.10)
Christopher Koch : Drawn to Comics Elaine Minor , 2009 single work criticism
— Appears in: JASAL , Special Issue 2009;
In debates about appreciation and interpretation of Literature, Christopher Koch is an outspoken, and often controversial, figure. He deplores what he terms the postmodern approach to critical analysis, questioning why children are 'studying films, comic strips and hopelessly bad contemporary novels with social messages, rather than major works that have stood the test of time'. It is somewhat surprising then, to study Koch's novels and uncover how frequently his work is informed by childhood influences and his love of comic books. This essay considers whether unwittingly Koch, as an author, is an instrument of social forces.
y A Student's Guide to Highways to a War by Christopher J. Koch Emma Burrell , Paul Callaghan , Ballarat : Wizard Books , 1999 Z1612214 1999 single work criticism
y Ancestral Narratives: Irish-Australian Identities in History and Fiction Chad Habel , Saarbrucken : VDM Verlag , 2008-2009 Z1664583 2008-2009 single work criticism
Memory, Imagination, and Identity in Secret Intelligence : Christopher Koch's The Memory Room Bruce Bennett , 2009 single work criticism
— Appears in: Antipodes , December vol. 23 no. 2 2009; (p. 109-113)
'Sometimes a novel emerges in a culture that touches the nerve of its times even though it is set a generation or so earlier. Dickens's Bleak House is a novel of this kind. The institutions of law remain forever colored by Dickens's satiric observations in this novel. Christopher Koch is not a satirist, but his novel Highways to a War (1995) remains the most memorable of the spate of novels that explored Australia's military involvement in the wars in Vietnam and Cambodia in the 1960s and 70s. Koch's latest novel, The Memory Room (2007), set in China and Australia in the early 1980s, has a similar impact and again recalls events some twenty-five years earlier, with a focus on the profession of secret intelligence.' (p. 109)
Christopher Koch : Crossing Sea Walls Chad Habel , 2009 single work criticism
— Appears in: Something Rich and Strange : Sea Changes, Beaches and the Littoral in the Antipodes 2009; (p. 224-231)
Discusses some of Koch's novels with focus on the notion of crossing boundaries and entering new spaces, where transformation of identities is possible. Using sea travel and the sea wall as a boundary which serves to prevent a crossing, the novels focus on liminal spaces, but the transformative potential of such liminal spaces is rarely fulfilled. The notion of 'crossing over' 'serves to help understand Koch's fiction as a unified body of work' (231), representing a coherent vision despite shifts in focus and emphasis.
Elvis Down Under : Simulations of a US Pop Icon in Australian Fiction Paul Genoni , 2010 single work criticism
— Appears in: Reading Across the Pacific : Australia-United States Intellectual Histories 2010; (p. 177-193)
'This paper will examine a selection of Australian fiction which features Elvis Presley, or a Presley manqué, as a character. This will include novels and short fiction by Debra Adelaide (A Household Guide to Dying), Julie Capaldo (Weather), Nick Cave (And the Ass Saw the Angel), Gail Jones ('Heartbreak Hotel') and Dorian Mode (A Cafe in Venice). The paper will investigate the capacity of a ubiquitous pop icon such as Presley to absorb and reflect socio-cultural meanings that transcend national boundaries while at the same time affirming elements of national character. In doing so it will consider the meaning and function of trans-national celebrity in a globalised world, and explore why it is that Australian authors—and readers—find a resonance in the figure of Elvis Presley that is seemingly missing from the pop-iconography of their own country.' (Author's abstract)
A Century of Oz Lit in China : A Critical Overview (1906-2008) Yu Ouyang , 2011 single work criticism
— Appears in: Antipodes , June vol. 25 no. 1 2011; (p. 65-71)
‘This paper seeks to examine the dissemination, reception and perception of Australian literature in China from 1906 to 2008 by providng a historical background for its first arrival in China as a literature undistinguished from English or American literature, then as part of a ruoxiao minzu wenxue (weak and small nation literature) in the early 1930s, its rise as interest grew in Communist and proletarian writings in the 1950s and 1960s, and its spread and growth from the end of the cultural revolution in 1976 across all genres, culminating in its present unprecedented flourishing.’ (Introduction, p. 65)
Interview with Christopher Koch Helen Daniel (interviewer), 1995 single work interview
— Appears in: Australian Book Review , August no. 173 1995; (p. 7-9)
Book Prize Shock: Author Uses Real Name Tony Stephens , 1996 single work column biography
— Appears in: The Sydney Morning Herald , 13 June 1996; (p. 3)
How a Dropout Took Highway to Award Tony Stephens , 1996 single work column biography
— Appears in: The Sydney Morning Herald , 13 June 1996; (p. 17)
Highway to the Heart of Asia Greg Sheridan , 1996 single work criticism
— Appears in: The Australian , 13 June 1996; (p. 11)
Novel Choice Based on Its Literary Merits Barry Oakley , 1996 single work column
— Appears in: The Australian , 13 June 1996; (p. 2)
Winning Author Blasts Malice Aforethought Luke Slattery , 1996 single work column biography
— Appears in: The Australian , 13 June 1996; (p. 1,2)
Koch Takes Second Miles Franklin 1996 single work column
— Appears in: The Australian , 13 June 1996; (p. 10)
Tassie's Winning Author Rocks the Literary Cradle 1996 single work column biography
— Appears in: The Mercury , 13 June 1996; (p. 1)
If Literature Holds a Mirror to Life, Could This be Reality? Frank Devine , 1996 single work column
— Appears in: The Australian , 17 June 1996; (p. 13)
Last amended 16 Dec 2014 16:14:16
Subjects:
  • c
    Cambodia,
    c
    Southeast Asia, South and East Asia, Asia,
  • c
    Vietnam,
    c
    Southeast Asia, South and East Asia, Asia,
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