* Contents derived from the Carlton,Parkville - Carlton area,Melbourne - North,Melbourne,Victoria,:Melbourne University Press,1954 version. Please note that other versions/publications may contain different contents. See the Publication Details.
Lachlan Macquarie served as Governor of New South Wales from 1809 to 1821. Intent on breaking down the barriers between landholders and ex-convicts, he nonetheless came into conflict with many who opposed his autocractic methods.
John Batman led an exploration to the Port Phillip area, where he famously declared, 'This will be the place for a village.' Although the settlement of Melbourne was quickly established, Batman himself suffered from ill health and was refused ownership of the land on which he settled his family.
When William Charles Wentworth travelled to England to study for the Bar, he discovered that his parents had been convicts. This inspired his lifelong agitation for emancipation and responsible government for New South Wales. However Wentworth was no democrat, and he argued that power should reside in the hands of a few prominent landholders.
Sir Henry Parkes founded The Empire newspaper in 1850 which encouraged discussion of the abolition of transportation, the securing of a liberal constitution, and easy access to land for farmers. Entering the Legislative Council in 1854, Parkes introduced the Public Schools Act in 1866 and encouraged the establishment of schools and cultural institutions throughout settled Australia. Although his policies were often vague and full of contradictions, Parkes was widely admired in his day and, following his death, for his contribution to achieving the Federation of Australia.
Louis Buvelot was a French-Swiss painter who emmigrated to Melbourne in 1865. He became a pioneer of Australian landscape painting, exhibiting his paintings in Australia and internationally, and teaching later-renowned Australian artists including F. W. McCubbin and John Ford Paterson.
As Attorney-General and later as a judge, George Higinbotham fought to assert the limitations of the governor's powers, and the rights of the people of Victoria to complete control over local affairs, as granted by the Constitution Act of 1854.
Baron Ferdinand von Müller was Government Botanist of Victoria from 1852 until his death in 1896, and Director of the Melbourne Botanical Gardens from 1857 to 1873. Müller undertook extensive exploration of Victoria in his search for new plants.
Robert Christison established 'Lammermoor', one of the first and most successful sheep and cattle stations in Far North Queensland. Christison also established a freezing works at Poole Island, near Bowen, to freeze beef for export to England but a cyclone put an end to his scheme. Drought and conflict with unions also threatened Christison's enterprise, however he remained one of the richest and most successful pastoralists of his era.
W. G. Spence was instrumental in the formation of the Amalgamated Miners' Association and the Amalgamated Shearers' Union. Both unions agitated for better working conditions and enjoyed some success, although long-term success was limited as a result of rising unemployment, the formation of the Pastoralists' Union by the employers, and the enactment of the Trade Union Act of 1886.
Patrick Francis Moran arrived in Australia in 1884. As Cardinal of the Catholic Church he worked to improve quality of education, to strengthen the power and influence of his church, to support the labour movement, and to work towards the Federation of Australia.
Edgeworth David arrived in New South Wales in 1882 as Assistant Geological Surveyor. After undertaking an extensive geological survey of the Hunter River coalfields he accepted a chair at the University of Sydney. He gained international recognition with his geological investigation of coral reefs at Funafati, and his trek to the magnetic pole in Antartica. He later served as a geologist in World War I.
William James Farrer was employed as Wheat Experimentalist by the New South Wales Department of Agriculture in 1898. In this role he investigated how to combat rust in wheat crops, and encouraged the development of hardier wheat crops more suited to Australia's climate.
Henry Lawson experienced much hardship and disillusionment in his early life, which heavily influenced his early writing. Later, inspired by the union men agitating for improved working conditions, his work often centred on the theme of mateship.
At age nineteen, Hugh Victor McKay invented a harvesting machine that would take the ears from a standing crop of wheat, and thresh, winnow, and clean the grain in one operation. This invention slashed the cost of harvesting, and was soon in high demand both within Australia, and internationally.
Sir Denison Miller was appointed Governor of the Commonwealth Bank of Australia when it was created in 1912. Critics worried about so much power being held by one man, but Miller's innovative strategies soon made the bank's future secure, and ensured financial resources were available to the Australian government and people during World War I.