This chapter briefly surveys the major socio-political developments in Aboriginal affairs between 1961 and 1988. Though this period was one of success, and witnessed a growing self-confidence among Aboriginal Australians, it was also one of frustrated expectations and hopes, particularly in relation to land rights. The era saw the initiative for protest activity in Aboriginal affairs move from white dominated bodies to co-operative organisations and then to groups controlled administratively and sometimes financially by Black Australians. Shoemaker argues that there is a tendency for white readers to evaluate Aboriginal works solely according to Western literary standards which is an unreasonable expectation. While it is illuminating to compare Black Australian writing with those of certain white Australian authors, this provides only a partial understanding of Aboriginal works. An understanding of Aboriginal literature is only gained from analysing Aboriginal writing in its own right and seeing it as a discrete body of Fourth World literature in which striking themes and concerns emerge. The work of white writers such as Judith Wright, Patrick White, Randolph Stow, and Donald Stuart are examined.