y Human Toll single work   novel  
Issue Details: First known date: 1907 1907
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Notes

  • Dedication: To Boshy's Lovey and mine.
  • 'The date of composition is unknown but there are a few possible clues. Baynton refers to the proofs of Human Toll lying about her in a letter to A.G. Stephens from Switzerland in January 1906: she seems to have had them for a long time. This novel may also be the "long story" she mentions in another letter to Stephens, in February 1903' (Editor's Note, Portable Australian Authors: Barbara Baynton, UQP, 1980).
  • Other formats: Also sound recording, e-book.

Publication Details of Only Known VersionEarliest 2 Known Versions of

Works about this Work

The Making of Barbara Baynton Rosemary Moore , 2014 single work criticism
— Appears in: Changing The Victorian Subject 2014; (p. 83-103)
Structure against Place, Fate and Cruelty : Deplorable State of Bush Women from the Works of Barbara Baynton P. Bhubaneswari , 2008 single work criticism
— Appears in: Women's Writing in English : India and Australia 2008; (p. 149-156)
Barbara Baynton : Liar or Truth-Teller Rosemary Moore , 2005 single work criticism
— Appears in: Quodlibet : The Australian Journal of Trans-National Writing , March no. 1 2005;
Envisioning Female Sexuality in Barbara Baynton's 'Human Toll' Rosemary Moore , 1993 single work criticism
— Appears in: The Time to Write : Australian Women Writers 1890-1930 1993; (p. 218-237)
Moore examines the ways in which Human Toll explores anxieties about female sexuality, arguing that "terror arises out of a woman's perception of the horror that surrounds female sexuality as a social construction and a projection of male fears". Moore demonstrates that, in Human Toll, Baynton endows Ursula with the capacity to escape the cycle of a "woman's trajectory". Given the power to recognise inhibiting stereotypes, Ursula takes control of her quest for self-knowledge and her desire to be a writer.
The Enigma of Woman : Barbara Baynton's Human Toll Rosemary Moore , 1990 single work criticism
— Appears in: Australian Feminist Studies , no. 12 1990; (p. 83-93)
Barbara Baynton: An Australian Jocasta Joan Kirkby , 1989 single work criticism
— Appears in: Westerly , December vol. 34 no. 4 1989; (p. 114-124)
Barbara Baynton's Human Toll : A Modernist Text? Shirley Walker , 1989 single work criticism
— Appears in: Southerly , June vol. 49 no. 2 1989; (p. 131-148)
Walker responds to critics who have questioned the value of the structure and melodrama of Human Toll, arguing that the novel is a deliberate experiment that anticipates narrative techniques used by modernist writers. Walker argues that the melodrama of Human Toll acts as hyperbole to the realism of the text, reflecting Baynton's "outrage at the moral blindness, grotesquerie and evil to be found in the society of the bush". This effect makes way for the psychological realism of the last chapters of the book, producing a mixture of modes and techniques that identify a "proto-modernist text which is well before its time".
Gender and Genre in Barbara Baynton's Human Toll Susan Sheridan , 1989 single work criticism
— Appears in: Australian Literary Studies , May vol. 14 no. 1 1989; (p. 66-77) Along the Faultlines : Sex, Race and Nation in Australian Women's Writing - 1880s-1930s 1995; (p. 15-26)
Sheridan challenges negative evaluations of Human Toll that measure the success of the novel against the well-made realist novel. Sheridan argues that the novel is not disguised autobiography, but employs the narrative devices of late nineteenth century women's fiction while subverting certain elements of that genre. Human Toll destabilizes the conventions of the heroic women's novel, producing a narrative that operates in a Gothic/tragic mode.
Disguises and Persecutions: Miles Franklin, Louisa Lawson, Barbara Baynton Brian Matthews , 1987 single work criticism
— Appears in: Romantics and Mavericks : The Australian Short Story 1987; (p. 4-15)
Barbara Baynton: An Affinity with Pain Lucy Frost , 1983 single work criticism
— Appears in: Who Is She? 1983; (p. 56-70)
A Note On barbara Baynton Peter Cowan , 1949 single work review
— Appears in: Arts Quarterly , Summer 1949; (p. 8-13)

— Review of The Chosen Vessel Barbara Baynton 1896 single work short story ; Bush Studies Barbara Baynton 1902 selected work short story ; Squeaker's Mate Barbara Baynton 1902 single work short story ; Scrammy 'And Barbara Baynton 1902 single work short story ; Billy Skywonkie Barbara Baynton 1902 single work short story ; Bush Church Barbara Baynton 1902 single work short story ; The Chosen Vessel Barbara Baynton 1896 single work short story ; Human Toll Barbara Baynton 1907 single work novel
Discusses Barbara Baynton's 'bare objectivity' and 'treatment of subject matter' which, in Peter Cowan's view, 'tends to exclude the writer's personality'.
y Modern Australian Literature, 1900-1923 Nettie Palmer , Melbourne : Lothian , 1924 Z120440 1924 single work criticism
Mrs Barbara Baynton 1920 single work biography
— Appears in: The Home , (Spring) September vol. 1 no. 3 1920; (p. 83) Barbara Baynton 1980; (p. 326-328)
Untitled 1907 single work review
— Appears in: The Queenslander , 27 April 1907; (p. 20)

— Review of Human Toll Barbara Baynton 1907 single work novel
Untitled 1907 single work review
— Appears in: The Queenslander , 15 June 1907; (p. 20)

— Review of Human Toll Barbara Baynton 1907 single work novel
Untitled Alfred George Stephens , 1907 single work review
— Appears in: The Bulletin , 4 April vol. 28 no. 1416 1907; (p. 2)

— Review of Human Toll Barbara Baynton 1907 single work novel
The Bush 1907 single work review
— Appears in: The Bulletin , 4 April vol. 28 no. 1416 1907; (p. 2)

— Review of Human Toll Barbara Baynton 1907 single work novel
Short Notice 1907 single work review
— Appears in: The Australian Town and Country Journal , 26 June vol. 74 no. 1951 1907; (p. 55)

— Review of Human Toll Barbara Baynton 1907 single work novel
Review of Barbara Baynton's Human Toll 1907 single work review
— Appears in: The Native Companion , April no. 44 1907;

— Review of Human Toll Barbara Baynton 1907 single work novel
Books Reviewed 1907 single work review
— Appears in: Steele Rudd's Magazine , May 1907;

— Review of Human Toll Barbara Baynton 1907 single work novel
A Note On barbara Baynton Peter Cowan , 1949 single work review
— Appears in: Arts Quarterly , Summer 1949; (p. 8-13)

— Review of The Chosen Vessel Barbara Baynton 1896 single work short story ; Bush Studies Barbara Baynton 1902 selected work short story ; Squeaker's Mate Barbara Baynton 1902 single work short story ; Scrammy 'And Barbara Baynton 1902 single work short story ; Billy Skywonkie Barbara Baynton 1902 single work short story ; Bush Church Barbara Baynton 1902 single work short story ; The Chosen Vessel Barbara Baynton 1896 single work short story ; Human Toll Barbara Baynton 1907 single work novel
Discusses Barbara Baynton's 'bare objectivity' and 'treatment of subject matter' which, in Peter Cowan's view, 'tends to exclude the writer's personality'.
Untitled 1907 single work review
— Appears in: The Queenslander , 27 April 1907; (p. 20)

— Review of Human Toll Barbara Baynton 1907 single work novel
Untitled 1907 single work review
— Appears in: The Queenslander , 15 June 1907; (p. 20)

— Review of Human Toll Barbara Baynton 1907 single work novel
Untitled Alfred George Stephens , 1907 single work review
— Appears in: The Bulletin , 4 April vol. 28 no. 1416 1907; (p. 2)

— Review of Human Toll Barbara Baynton 1907 single work novel
The Bush 1907 single work review
— Appears in: The Bulletin , 4 April vol. 28 no. 1416 1907; (p. 2)

— Review of Human Toll Barbara Baynton 1907 single work novel
Short Notice 1907 single work review
— Appears in: The Australian Town and Country Journal , 26 June vol. 74 no. 1951 1907; (p. 55)

— Review of Human Toll Barbara Baynton 1907 single work novel
Review of Barbara Baynton's Human Toll 1907 single work review
— Appears in: The Native Companion , April no. 44 1907;

— Review of Human Toll Barbara Baynton 1907 single work novel
Books Reviewed 1907 single work review
— Appears in: Steele Rudd's Magazine , May 1907;

— Review of Human Toll Barbara Baynton 1907 single work novel
Barbara Baynton : Liar or Truth-Teller Rosemary Moore , 2005 single work criticism
— Appears in: Quodlibet : The Australian Journal of Trans-National Writing , March no. 1 2005;
The Enigma of Woman : Barbara Baynton's Human Toll Rosemary Moore , 1990 single work criticism
— Appears in: Australian Feminist Studies , no. 12 1990; (p. 83-93)
Structure against Place, Fate and Cruelty : Deplorable State of Bush Women from the Works of Barbara Baynton P. Bhubaneswari , 2008 single work criticism
— Appears in: Women's Writing in English : India and Australia 2008; (p. 149-156)
Barbara Baynton: An Australian Jocasta Joan Kirkby , 1989 single work criticism
— Appears in: Westerly , December vol. 34 no. 4 1989; (p. 114-124)
y Modern Australian Literature, 1900-1923 Nettie Palmer , Melbourne : Lothian , 1924 Z120440 1924 single work criticism
Barbara Baynton and the Dissidence of the Nineties A. A. Phillips , 1902-1961 single work criticism
— Appears in: Overland , Summer (1961-1962) no. 22 1961; (p. 15-20) An Overland Muster : Selections from Overland 1954-1964 1965; (p. 178-190) Bush Studies 1965; (p. 26-42) The Australian Tradition : Studies in a Colonial Culture 1966; (p. 72-82) The Australian Nationalists : Modern Critical Essays 1971; (p. 149-158)
Disguises and Persecutions: Miles Franklin, Louisa Lawson, Barbara Baynton Brian Matthews , 1987 single work criticism
— Appears in: Romantics and Mavericks : The Australian Short Story 1987; (p. 4-15)
Envisioning Female Sexuality in Barbara Baynton's 'Human Toll' Rosemary Moore , 1993 single work criticism
— Appears in: The Time to Write : Australian Women Writers 1890-1930 1993; (p. 218-237)
Moore examines the ways in which Human Toll explores anxieties about female sexuality, arguing that "terror arises out of a woman's perception of the horror that surrounds female sexuality as a social construction and a projection of male fears". Moore demonstrates that, in Human Toll, Baynton endows Ursula with the capacity to escape the cycle of a "woman's trajectory". Given the power to recognise inhibiting stereotypes, Ursula takes control of her quest for self-knowledge and her desire to be a writer.
Barbara Baynton: An Affinity with Pain Lucy Frost , 1983 single work criticism
— Appears in: Who Is She? 1983; (p. 56-70)
Barbara Baynton's Human Toll : A Modernist Text? Shirley Walker , 1989 single work criticism
— Appears in: Southerly , June vol. 49 no. 2 1989; (p. 131-148)
Walker responds to critics who have questioned the value of the structure and melodrama of Human Toll, arguing that the novel is a deliberate experiment that anticipates narrative techniques used by modernist writers. Walker argues that the melodrama of Human Toll acts as hyperbole to the realism of the text, reflecting Baynton's "outrage at the moral blindness, grotesquerie and evil to be found in the society of the bush". This effect makes way for the psychological realism of the last chapters of the book, producing a mixture of modes and techniques that identify a "proto-modernist text which is well before its time".
Gender and Genre in Barbara Baynton's Human Toll Susan Sheridan , 1989 single work criticism
— Appears in: Australian Literary Studies , May vol. 14 no. 1 1989; (p. 66-77) Along the Faultlines : Sex, Race and Nation in Australian Women's Writing - 1880s-1930s 1995; (p. 15-26)
Sheridan challenges negative evaluations of Human Toll that measure the success of the novel against the well-made realist novel. Sheridan argues that the novel is not disguised autobiography, but employs the narrative devices of late nineteenth century women's fiction while subverting certain elements of that genre. Human Toll destabilizes the conventions of the heroic women's novel, producing a narrative that operates in a Gothic/tragic mode.
Mrs Barbara Baynton 1920 single work biography
— Appears in: The Home , (Spring) September vol. 1 no. 3 1920; (p. 83) Barbara Baynton 1980; (p. 326-328)
The Making of Barbara Baynton Rosemary Moore , 2014 single work criticism
— Appears in: Changing The Victorian Subject 2014; (p. 83-103)
Last amended 22 Apr 2015 11:32:41
Subjects:
  • Bush,
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